Sunday, March 26, 2017

Course Schedule for 2013

Please note that you must register and log in before you can download readings (there is a Login box on the right side of this page with a register link). Also note that some linked reading files are quite large and may take a minute or two to download in your browser window.

Monday Morning

  • Overview and course logistics
  • Meeting and introducing
  • Participatory video and other approaches
  • Research design and questions


Conroy, C. 2002. PRA tools used for research into common pool resources. Socio-economic Methodologies for Natural Resources Research. Best Practice Guidelines. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.

Lunch, Nick and Chris Lunch. 2006. Insights into Participatory Video: a Handbook for the Field. Oxford, Insight. Pages 1 – 45.

Sheil, Douglas and Anna Lawrence 2004. Tropical biologists, local people, and conservation: new opportunities for collaboration. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 19:634–638.

Stepp, J.R. 2005. Advances in Ethnobiological Field Methods. Field Methods. 17(3): 211-218.

Monday Afternoon

  • Establishing domains
  • Freelisting
  • Introduction to software packages (Anthropac and Ucinet)
  • Ethnobiological inventories and classification


Berlin, B. 1992. Ethnobotanical Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies. Chapter 1. Princeton University Press, Princeton

Brewer, D. 1995. Cognitive indicators of knowledge in semantic domains. Journal of Quantitative Anthropology 5:129-147,1995.

Hunn, Eugene 1982. The utilitarian factor in folk biological classification. American Anthropologist 84:830–847.

Quinlan, Marsha 2005. Considerations for collecting freelists in the field: Examples from ethnobotany. Field Methods 17:219–234.

Ryan, Gery W., Justin M. Nolan, and P. Stanley Yoder 2000. Successive free listing: Using multiple free lists to generate explanatory models. Field Methods 12:83–107

Tuesday Morning

  • Making georeferenced biological collections
  • Ethnobiological databases and labelling voucher specimens


Bye., Robert A., Jr. 1986 Voucher specimens in ethnobiological studies and publications. J. of Ethnobiology 6:1–8.

Boster, James, Brent Berlin, and John O’Neill 1986. The correspondence of Jivaroan to scientific ornithology. American Anthropologist 88:569–583.

Stepp, J.R., M. Thomas. 2005. Managing Ethnopharmacological Data: Herbaria, Relational Data Bases, Literature, in Ethnopharmacology (N. Etkin and E. Elisabetsky eds.) in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK.

Tuesday Afternoon

  • Loss and persistence of knowledge
  • Specimen identification tasks
  • Similarity indexes
  • Pile sorting and triads


Benz, Bruce F., J. Cevallos E., F. Santana M., J. Rosales A., and S. Graf M. 2000. Losing knowledge about plant use in the Sierra de Manantlan Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Economic Botany 54:183–191.

Hunn, Eugene 2002. Evidence for the precocious acquisition of plant knowledge by Zapotec children. In: Ethnobiology and Biocultural Diversity , J. R. Stepp, F. S. Wyndham and R. K. Zarger, eds. Athens, Georgia: International Society of Ethnobiology, pp. 604–613.

Ross, N., T. Barrientos, A. Esquit-Choy. 2005. Triad Tasks, a Multipurpose Tool to Elicit Similarity Judgments: The Case of Tzotzil Maya Plant Taxonomy. Field Methods. 17(3).

Reyes-García, Victoria, V. Vadez, E. Byron, L. Apaza, W. R. Leonard, E. Pérez, and D. Wilkie 2005. Market economy and the loss of folk knowledge of plant uses: Estimates from the Tsimane’ of the Bolivian Amazon. Current Anthropology 46:651–656.

Zent, S. 2001. “Acculturation and Ethnobotanical Knowledge Loss among the Piaroa of Venezuela” in On Biocultural Diversity (L. Maffi ed.) Smithsonian: Washington DC.

Wednesday Morning

  • Human ecological methods
  • Gathering and using social attribute data


Boster, James and Jeffrey C. Johnson 1989. Form or function: A comparison of expert and novice judgments of similarity among fish. American Anthropologist 91:866–889.

Davis, Anthony and John R. Wagner 2003. Who knows? On the importance of identifying “experts” when researching local ecological knowledge. Human Ecology 31:463–489.

McClatchey, W. et al. 2004. “Ethnobiodiversity Surveys of Human/Ecosystem Relationships” in Biodiversity Assessment of Tropical Island Ecosystems.

Peters, C.M. 1996. “Beyond Nomenclature and Use” Pages 241-276 in Alexiades, M.N., editor, Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. New York, The New York Botanical Garden.

Zent, S. 1996. “Behavioral Orientations towards Ethnobotanical Quantification” Pages 199-239 in Alexiades, M.N., editor, Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. New York, The New York Botanical Garden.

Wednesday Afternoon

  • Rating and ranking
  • Multidimensional scaling
  • Clustering
  • Pairwise comparisons
  • Consensus analysis
  • Medical ethnobotany


Aunger, Robert 1999. Against idealism/contra consensus. Current Anthropology 40: S93–S101.

Berlin, E.A. and B. Berlin. 2005. Some Field Methods in Medical Ethnobiology. Field Methods 17:235–268.

Miller, Marc L., J. Kaneko, P. Bartram, J. Marks, and D. D. Brewer 2004. Cultural consensus analysis and environmental anthropology: Yellowfin tuna fishery management in Hawaii. Cross-Cultural Research 38:289–314.

Romney Cultural consensus as a statistical model. Current Anthropology 40: S103–S115.

Stepp, J.R. 2009. Informant use recall technique in ethnobotany. pp. 100-108 in Recent Development and Case Studies in Ethnobotany (U.P. de Albuquerque and N. Hanzaki eds.) NUPEEA: Brazil.

Thursday Morning

  • Tree trails and plots
  • Market Surveys
  • Social Network Analysis


Boster, James 1986. Exchange of varieties and information between Aguaruna manioc cultivators. American Anthropologist 88:428–436.

Bye, R. and E. Linares. 1983. The Role of Plants in the Mexican Markets and their Importance in Ethnobotanical Studies. Journal of Ethnobiology. 3(1):1-13.

Godoy, Ricardo, V. Reyes-García, E. Byron, W. R. Leonard, and V. Vadez 2005. The effect of market economies on the well-being of indigenous peoples and on their use of renewable natural resources. Annual Review of Anthropology 34:121–138.

Zarger, Rebecca K. and John R. Stepp 2004. Persistence of botanical knowledge among Tzeltal Maya children. Current Anthropology 45:413–418.

Thursday Afternoon

  • Calculating diversity indices and rarefaction curves (EstimateS)
  • Educara: additional data collection and analysis software
  • Ethnocartography and GIS practical applications


Hazanaki, Natalia, J.Y. Tamashiro, H.F. Letão-Filho, and A. Begossi. 2000. Diversity of plant uses in two Caiçara communities from the Atlantic Forest coast, Bazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 9:597–615.

Williams VL, Witkowski ETF, Balkwill K. 2005. Application of diversity indices to appraise plant availability in traditional medicinal markets in Johannesburg, South Africa. Biodiversity Conservation 14:2971–3001

Williams VL, ETF Witkowski and K. Balkwill. 2007. The use of incidence-based species richness estimators, species accumulation curves and similarity measures to appraise ethnobotanical inventories from South Africa. Biodiversity Conservation (volume and page numbers pending)

Calculating a biodiversity index. In: Biodiversity Monitoring Training Manual . ND. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Avaialble online (Also from the National Zoo; click on the pdf version at the very top of the page.)

Stepp, J.R., H. Castaneda, S. Cervone 2005. Mountains and Biocultural Diversity. Mountain Research and Development. 25(3):223-27.

Friday Morning

  • Explaining patterns in data
  • Funding and disseminating research

Friday Afternoon

  • Returning results to communities
  • Proposed projects
  • Evaluation